Document Type : Review Articles
Dairy Science Department, Faculty Agriculture, New Valley University, Egypt
Manufacture of virtually all milk and dairy products involves heat treatment, with the goal of killing bacteria and inactivating enzymes, among other things. Thermal reactions, on the other hand, might result in undesired changes such as protein denaturation, non-enzymatic browning, the creation of a cooked flavour, nutritional quality loss (vitamins and volatile chemicals), bacterial inhibitor inactivation, and rennet ability deterioration. Over and above the thermal processes are characterized as the most energy-consuming technologies in the food industry. As a result, a number of contemporary developments and non-thermal technologies have been investigated and found to have no negative impact on milk quality; for example, High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), Ionization Radiation, Ultrasounds (US), Pulsed electric fields (PEF), carbon dioxide, High Voltage Arc Discharge (HVAD) , Cold Plasma (CP), Bio-control cultures, Non-conventional chemical reagents, Ozonation, and Protective and preserving packaging technologies for processing milk have devised to replace heat treatment. The focus of this review is on certain non-thermal processing innovation as an emerging technology and its application on dairy products.